Jamestown is proud to present this special issue focusing on Iraq. One of the primary questions addressed here is who and what comprises the insurgency in Iraq. These articles present a complex picture of the conflict; a number of disparate groups with separate aims and methods are presently engaged against the coalition. Doubtless, there are foreign elements among the insurgents, but what is their strength and to what extent are they supported by or directly connected to al-Qaeda? What role do the internal politics of other Arab states play in the insurgency? By assessing both terrorist attacks as well as conventional military tactics, we hope this special issue sheds light on the present situation in Iraq.