Ryszard Machnikowski is the vice-dean for research and international affairs of the Faculty of International and Political Studies at the University of Lodz, Poland. He obtained M. Sc. in sociology (1991), Ph.D. in Social Sciences (1996), was a Soros FCO Scholar at Hertford College, Oxford University (1992-93), Fulbright Junior Scholar at Columbia University in the City of New York (1993-94); since 2011 associate professor at the Faculty of International and Political Studies, University of Lodz, Poland. In the years 2005 – 2009 the Head of the Center for Strategic Studies and Forecast at the Lodz School of International Studies, Poland. External Expert of National Forecast Program Poland 2020, expert at the Polish National Science Centre (NCN), Foreign Expert at the French CSFRS (Conseil Superieur de la Formation et de la Recherche Strategique), member of the Conseil Scientifique of M. Sc. Studies in criminology at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers in Paris, expert and Member of the Advisory Board at the Countering Lone Actor Terrorism (CLAT) network project co-ordinated by Institute for Strategic Dialogue in London (2015 – 16), consultant of the Police force in Lodz, including SWAT Team in the City of Lodz (SPAP Lodz). Specializes in terrorism and security studies, transatlantic relations, problems of globalization, author of three books and more than 50 scientific articles, chapters and reviews on these issues.
Relatively few jihadist fighters have originated from Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) by comparison to the number of fighters seen from Western Europe. The networks in Western Europe are